Kashmir Fast Facts

Willie Grace | 4/2/2015, 7:02 p.m.
The separatist violence has killed more than 47,000 people, which does not include people who have disappeared due to the ...
Kashmir

(CNN) -- Here's a look at what you need to know about Kashmir, a region in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges. India, Pakistan and China all claim partial or complete ownership of Kashmir.

Facts: Kashmir is an 86,000-square mile region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent.

The separatist violence has killed more than 47,000 people, which does not include people who have disappeared due to the conflict. Some human rights groups and nongovernmental organizations put the death toll at twice that amount.

India and Pakistan have been fighting over Kashmir since both countries gained their independence in 1947.

The Line of Control separating Indian- and Pakistani-controlled parts of Kashmir is 435 miles (700 km) long.

India-controlled: One state, called Jammu and Kashmir, makes up the southern and eastern portions of the region, totaling about 45% of Kashmir.

Pakistan-controlled: Three areas called Azad Kashmir, Gilgit and Baltistan make up the northern and western portions of the region, totaling about 35% of Kashmir.

China-controlled: One area called Aksai Chin in the northeastern part of the region, equaling 20% of Kashmir.

India also alleges Pakistan has ceded 3,220 square miles in Kashmir to China.

Srinagar is the summer capital city in Jammu and Kashmir state. Jammu is the winter capital.

The capital of Azad Kashmir is Muzaffarabad.

Timeline: August 15, 1947 - India and Pakistan gain independence from Great Britain. Kashmir initially decides to remain independent, choosing not to become a part of either Pakistan or India.

October 1947 - After armed tribesmen from Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province invade Kashmir, Maharaja Hari Singh, the ruler of Kashmir, signs a letter acceding to India. In exchange for handing key powers to the central government in New Delhi, Kashmir gains India's military protection. Pakistan does not recognize this letter as a legal document. This begins India and Pakistan's first war over Kashmir.

January 1, 1949 - India and Pakistan agree to withdraw all troops behind a mutually agreed ceasefire line, later known as the Line of Control.

August 5, 1965 - India and Pakistan go to war again over Kashmir. Pakistan invades Indian-held Kashmir, but the fighting produces little territorial gain for Pakistan.

1971 - Fighting erupts again as part of the Indo-Pak war.

July 1972 - The Simla Agreement ends the fighting and establishes the Line of Control between Indian-controlled Kashmir and Pakistan-controlled Kashmir. The two sides continue to argue over the border.

1989 - Islamic militants begin an uprising in Indian-controlled Kashmir. Tens of thousands of people have been killed.

1999 - India and Pakistan fight a limited border conflict in Kashmir, after armed invaders cross the Line of Control in the town of Kargil.

July 25, 2000 - Hizbul Mujahedeen, a pro-Pakistan Kashmiri militant group, declares a unilateral cease fire for three months in Jammu and Kashmir.

August 3, 2000 - India begins peace talks with Hizbul Mujahedeen, in Srinagar.

August 8, 2000 - Hizbul Mujahedeen calls off its two-week-old ceasefire and orders its forces to resume fighting against Indian troops.