9 Cases of Rat Lungworm Disease Confirmed in Hawaii
CNN/Stylemagazine.com Newswire | 4/11/2017, 8:53 a.m.
"When it gets to the brain, you can have eosinophilic meningitis," she said. This form of meningitis, a swelling of the thin membrane covering the spinal cord and brain, specifically caused by the parasite. Doctors tend to treat it with a combination of therapies, including anthelmintics -- antiparasitic drugs -- cortical steroids and supportive care.
Since the parasites cannot mature or reproduce in humans, they will die eventually, but in the meantime, they may cause physical problems.
The ingested parasite "can also move to the eye, and you can get ocular Angiostrongylus," Walden said. "If the parasite goes to the eye, sometimes you can surgically remove it."
In the best of cases, patients develop mild illness and get better on their own.
"The detection rate is pretty low," Walden said. Doctors generally look for clues and base their diagnoses on possible exposure to the parasite, through food or water, while living in or visiting an endemic region. Over 2,800 cases have been reported in about 30 countries, most of them in parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands, with fewer cases appearing in the Caribbean and Africa.
In the Hawaiian islands, about 80% of land snails are carriers of the parasite, according to a 2014 research paper.
Although most cases are not severe, said Walden, a rare case can lead to coma or even death.
Graham McCumber's was a severe case. According to an essay by his mother, Kay Howe, McCumber worked as a carpenter and stonemason and was an avid surfer and skateboarder. He was in his 20s, "strong, athletic and had his whole life ahead of him," Howe wrote in a post on the website for the environmental nonprofit Malama O Puna.
It is unclear how he became infected, though symptoms began when he was visiting the Big Island of Hawaii.
After rat lungworm parasites attacked his nervous system and brain in 2008, severe inflammation led to a coma. He recovered, but the damage to McCumber's nervous system was so great that after three months in a coma, he had to relearn how to use his entire body.
"Every major organ in his body was affected, which has caused a host of other problems," Howe wrote. His left eye turned inward, causing double vision, and even his vocal cords were touched by the illness. Today, he has permanent neurological effects.
Howe has said the medical community is not sufficiently aware of rat lungworm disease and doesn't know how to diagnose or treat it. In testimony before Hawaii state legislators in 2016, she said that doctors originally diagnosed McCumber with the flu and did not offer proper treatment soon enough to prevent a coma.
Prevention begins with cleanliness and proper cooking. "So making sure that the foods you eat are cooked properly, your vegetables are washed -- that would help you prevent infection," Walden said.
Walden's colleagues in Hawaii say cases of rat lungworm disease have been on the rise for two decades or so.
A community meeting was held last week on Maui to educate and share information, Okubo said. Wider statewide public education efforts are also being planned.
"It's important to appropriately store, inspect, and wash produce, especially leafy greens," Okubo said. Young children should be watched while playing outdoors so they don't accidentally put a snail or slug in their mouths.
The Hawaii State Department of Health (PDF) also recommends that people do not handle snails and slugs with their bare hands. Boil snails, freshwater prawns, crabs and frogs for at least three to five minutes before eating. Catchment tanks for rainwater should be covered to prevent slugs and snails from gaining access.
Anyone worried that they might be infected should consult a health care provider.